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PageTypeTitleAuthorsCitation count in KPCClick to find locations
Reference - 21st Century Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation Research and Investment NeedsWeb page21st Century Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation Research and Investment Needs
  • Sanders, Al
  • Boden, Brench
  • Stirk, Charlie
  • Belie, Gary
  • Pollari, Gregory
  • Allen, John
  • Fischer, Kevin
  • Frost, Scott
  • Frechette, Simon
  • Comerford, Tim
1
Reference - 50 Years of Composites: Past Present & FutureConference proceedings50 Years of Composites: Past Present & Future
  • Verpoest, Ignaas
1
Reference - A Framework for Formalizing Science Based Composites Manufacturing PracticeThesisA Framework for Formalizing Science Based Composites Manufacturing Practice
  • Fabris, Janna Noemi
9
Reference - A review of out-of-autoclave prepregs - Material properties, process phenomena, and manufacturing considerationsGenericA review of out-of-autoclave prepregs - Material properties, process phenomena, and manufacturing considerations
  • Grunenfelder, L. K.
  • Nutt, S. R.
  • Centea, T.
1
Reference - ASM Handbook: Aluminum Science and TechnologyGenericASM Handbook: Aluminum Science and Technology 1
Reference - ASTM D2471-99, Standard Test Method for Gel Time and Peak Exothermic Temperature of Reacting Thermosetting Resins (Withdrawn 2008)GenericASTM D2471-99, Standard Test Method for Gel Time and Peak Exothermic Temperature of Reacting Thermosetting Resins (Withdrawn 2008)
  • ASTM International
2
Reference - ASTM D2583 - 13a, Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol ImpressorGenericASTM D2583 - 13a, Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol Impressor
  • ASTM International
1
Reference - ASTM D3171-15, Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite MaterialsGenericASTM D3171-15, Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials
  • ASTM International
1
Reference - Advanced Composite MaterialsBookAdvanced Composite Materials
  • Pilato, Louis A.
  • Michno, Michael J.
2
Reference - An Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials EngineeringBookAn Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering
  • Gaskell, David R.
4
Reference - An Investigation of Autoclave Convective Heat TransferConference proceedingsAn Investigation of Autoclave Convective Heat Transfer
  • Johnston, Andrew
  • Poursartip, Anoush
  • Hubert, Pascal
  • Vaziri, Reza
1
Reference - An integrated model of the development of process-induced deformation in autoclave processing of composite structuresThesisAn integrated model of the development of process-induced deformation in autoclave processing of composite structures
  • Johnston, Andrew
2
Reference - Aspects of Flow and Compaction of Laminated Composites Shapes During CureThesisAspects of Flow and Compaction of Laminated Composites Shapes During Cure
  • Hubert, Pascal
1
Reference - Autoclave ProcessingBook sectionAutoclave Processing
  • Mobuchon, Christophe
  • Fernlund, Göran
  • Zobeiry, Navid
1
Reference - Basics of rheologyWeb pageBasics of rheology
  • Anton Paar
3
Reference - Blue M 146 Series Standard Mechanical Convection OvenWeb pageBlue M 146 Series Standard Mechanical Convection Oven
  • Thermal Product Solutions
1
Reference - Chemistry for Scientists and EngineersBookChemistry for Scientists and Engineers
  • Beall, H
  • Stuehr, J
  • Fine, L W
2
Reference - Committed Costs vs. Uncertainty in New Product Development. Working Paper WP-1993-02-01Working paperCommitted Costs vs. Uncertainty in New Product Development. Working Paper WP-1993-02-01
  • Phillips, F Y
  • Srivastava, R
1
Reference - Composite MaterialsBook sectionComposite Materials
  • Sapuan, S.M.
1
Reference - Composite Materials - History, Types, Fabrication Techniques, Advantages, and ApplicationsJournalComposite Materials - History, Types, Fabrication Techniques, Advantages, and Applications
  • Nagavally, Rahul Reddy
1
Reference - Composite Materials Handbook 17 - Polymer Matrix Composites; Guidelines for Characterization of Structural MaterialsBook sectionComposite Materials Handbook 17 - Polymer Matrix Composites; Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials 3
Reference - Composite Materials Handbook 17 - Polymer Matrix Composites; Materials Usage, Design and AnalysisBook sectionComposite Materials Handbook 17 - Polymer Matrix Composites; Materials Usage, Design and Analysis 3
Reference - Composite forming technologiesBookComposite forming technologies
  • Long, A C
2
Reference - Composites Applications GuideGenericComposites Applications Guide
  • Polynt Composites USA Inc.
1
Reference - Composites Manufacturing - Materials, Product, and Process EngineeringBookComposites Manufacturing - Materials, Product, and Process Engineering
  • Mazumdar, Sanjay K.
3
Reference - Controlling ExothermWeb pageControlling Exotherm
  • Barnard, Mike
2
Reference - Convection heat transfer, fourth editionBookConvection heat transfer, fourth edition
  • Bejan, Adrian
1
Reference - Cure cycle development and qualification for thick-section compositesConference proceedingsCure cycle development and qualification for thick-section composites
  • Warnock, Corinne M.
  • Briggs, Timothy M.
1
Reference - Cure shrinkage characterization of an epoxy resin system by two in situ measurement methodsJournalCure shrinkage characterization of an epoxy resin system by two in situ measurement methods
  • Khoun, Loleï
  • Hubert, Pascal
1
Reference - Curing in Thick Composite Laminates: Experiment and SimulationJournalCuring in Thick Composite Laminates: Experiment and Simulation
  • Geil, P. H.
  • Lin, S. E.
  • Twardowski, T. E.
1
Reference - Curing of composites by radiation and natural convection in an autoclaveJournalCuring of composites by radiation and natural convection in an autoclave
  • Dutournié, P
  • Glouannec, P
  • Salagnac, P
1
Reference - D.E.R. 330 Liquid Epoxy Resin (Form No. 296-01457-0310X-TD)GenericD.E.R. 330 Liquid Epoxy Resin (Form No. 296-01457-0310X-TD)
  • The Dow Chemical Company
1
Reference - DesertWeb pageDesert
  • NASA Earth Observatory
1
Reference - Digital disruption of composites manufacturing and designGenericDigital disruption of composites manufacturing and design
  • Poursartip, Anoush
1
Reference - Dow Liquid Epoxy Resins (Form No. 296-00224-0199 WC+M)GenericDow Liquid Epoxy Resins (Form No. 296-00224-0199 WC+M)
  • The Dow Chemical Company
1
Reference - EPOTUF Epoxy Resins & Curing AgentsGenericEPOTUF Epoxy Resins & Curing Agents
  • Reichhold
1
Reference - Effect of cure cycle on temperature/degree of cure field and hardness for epoxy resinJournalEffect of cure cycle on temperature/degree of cure field and hardness for epoxy resin
  • Zhang, Jing
  • Huang, Pei
  • Xu, Yachen
1
Reference - Effect of tool design on thermal management in composites processingMagazine articleEffect of tool design on thermal management in composites processing
  • Poursartip, Anoush
  • Fabris, Janna
  • Park, John
  • Zobeiry, Navid
2
Reference - Engineering Mechanics of Composite MaterialsBookEngineering Mechanics of Composite Materials
  • Daniel, Isaac M.
  • Ishai, Ori
6
Reference - Experimental Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of a Curing Epoxy Matrix Composite from Pre-Gelation to Full Cure. MASc thesisThesisExperimental Characterization of the Viscoelastic Behavior of a Curing Epoxy Matrix Composite from Pre-Gelation to Full Cure. MASc thesis
  • Thorpe, Ryan J.
2
Reference - Extreme Temperature RangesWeb pageExtreme Temperature Ranges
  • Kimble, Chris A.
  • National Weather Service
1
Reference - Fabrication methodsWeb pageFabrication methods
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Filament-Wound Composites Have Specialized Curing RequirementsWeb pageFilament-Wound Composites Have Specialized Curing Requirements
  • Grande, Mike
  • Thermal Processing
1
Reference - Frequency dependent heat capacity in the cure of epoxy resinsJournalFrequency dependent heat capacity in the cure of epoxy resins
  • Van Mele, B
  • Van Assche, G
  • Saruyama, Y
1
Reference - Handbook of CompositesBookHandbook of Composites 1
Reference - Handbook of Thermoset ResinsBookHandbook of Thermoset Resins
  • Ratna, Debdatta
1
Reference - Heat and Mass TransferBookHeat and Mass Transfer
  • Karwa
  • Meherishi
  • Karwa, Rajendra
4
Reference - Heat transfer coefficient distribution inside an autoclaveJournalHeat transfer coefficient distribution inside an autoclave
  • Arafath, A. R.A.
  • Poursartip, A.
  • Slesinger, N.
  • Shimizu, T.
2
Reference - Heat transfer coefficients on cakes baked in a tunnel type industrial ovenJournalHeat transfer coefficients on cakes baked in a tunnel type industrial oven
  • Castaigne, F.
  • Marcotte, M.
  • Trigui, M.
  • Balk, O. D.
  • Grabowski, S.
3
Reference - Heat transfer: basics and practiceBookHeat transfer: basics and practice
  • Böckh, Peter von
  • Wetzel, Thomas
1
Reference - Hot press forming of thermoplastic CFRP sheetsJournalHot press forming of thermoplastic CFRP sheets
  • Tatsuno, Daichi
  • Kawamoto, Kiichirou
  • Okamoto, Masayuki
  • Yoneyama, Takeshi
1
Reference - Introduction to the Thermodynamics of MaterialsBookIntroduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials
  • Gaskell, David R.
2
Reference - Is it an oven or a furnace?Web pageIs it an oven or a furnace?
  • INDUSTRIAL HEATING
1
Reference - Manufacture of carbon-fiber prepreg with thermoplastic/epoxy resin blends and microencapsulated solvent healing agentsJournalManufacture of carbon-fiber prepreg with thermoplastic/epoxy resin blends and microencapsulated solvent healing agents
  • Sottos, Nancy R.
  • Kim, Sang Yup
  • White, Scott R.
  • Lim, Tae Wook
1
Reference - Manufacturing Processes for Advanced CompositesBookManufacturing Processes for Advanced Composites
  • Campbell, F.C.
2
Reference - MatWeb: Online Materials Information ResourceWeb pageMatWeb: Online Materials Information Resource
  • MatWeb LLC
1
Reference - MatWeb: Online Materials Information ResourceWeb pageMatWeb: Online Materials Information Resource
  • MatWeb LLC
9
Reference - Materials & Processes: Tooling for compositesWeb pageMaterials & Processes: Tooling for composites
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Materials Science and Engineering: An IntroductionBookMaterials Science and Engineering: An Introduction
  • Callister, William D.
11
Reference - Materials Selection in Mechanical DesignBookMaterials Selection in Mechanical Design
  • Ashby, M.F.
9
Reference - Measurement of thermal conductivity of epoxy resins during cureJournalMeasurement of thermal conductivity of epoxy resins during cure
  • Skordos, A A
  • Remy, B
  • Struzziero, G
1
Reference - Measurements of heat transfer coefficients within convection ovensJournalMeasurements of heat transfer coefficients within convection ovens
  • Carson, James K.
  • Willix, Jim
  • North, Mike F.
3
Reference - Measuring and modeling the thermal conductivities of three-dimensionally woven fabric compositesJournalMeasuring and modeling the thermal conductivities of three-dimensionally woven fabric composites
  • Heider, D
  • Schuster, J
  • Sharp, K
  • Glowania, M
1
Reference - Mechanical performance of polyvinyl acetate (PVA)-based biocompositesBookMechanical performance of polyvinyl acetate (PVA)-based biocomposites
  • Kaboorani, A.
  • Riedl, B.
1
Reference - National Center for Advanced Materials Performance (NCAMP)Web pageNational Center for Advanced Materials Performance (NCAMP) 2
Reference - Olin Epoxy Resins Product Stewardship Manual (Form No. 296-02176-0119PI)GenericOlin Epoxy Resins Product Stewardship Manual (Form No. 296-02176-0119PI)
  • Olin Corporation
1
Reference - Ovens for Curing, Baking, and StrippingWeb pageOvens for Curing, Baking, and Stripping
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Plastics and Composites ProcessingBookPlastics and Composites Processing
  • Booker, J.D.
  • Swift, K.G.
1
Reference - Prepreg Technology (Publication No. FGU 017)GenericPrepreg Technology (Publication No. FGU 017)
  • Hexcel Composites
1
Reference - Presses for Special ApplicationsWeb pagePresses for Special Applications
  • Wabash MPI
1
Reference - Principles of Polymer EngineeringBookPrinciples of Polymer Engineering
  • Bucknall, C. B.
  • Buckley, C. P.
  • McCrum, N. G.
3
Reference - Principles of the Manufacturing of Composite MaterialsBookPrinciples of the Manufacturing of Composite Materials
  • Hoa, S V
5
Reference - Process-Induced Stress and Deformation in Thick-Section Thermoset Composite LaminatesJournalProcess-Induced Stress and Deformation in Thick-Section Thermoset Composite Laminates
  • Gillespie, John W.
  • Bogetti, Travis A.
1
Reference - Process-induced shape distortions in aerospace thermoplastic compositesThesisProcess-induced shape distortions in aerospace thermoplastic composites
  • Fortin, Gabriel Yves
1
Reference - Scaling crucial to integrated product development of composite aerospace structures. Part 1JournalScaling crucial to integrated product development of composite aerospace structures. Part 1
  • Ilcewicz, Larry B
3
Reference - Simple Techniques for Thermal Analysis of the Processing of Composite StructuresConference proceedingsSimple Techniques for Thermal Analysis of the Processing of Composite Structures
  • Rasekh, Ali
  • Poursartip, Anoush
  • Vaziri, Reza
1
Reference - Simple Visualization of Autoclave Airflow Using Wireless CamerasConference proceedingsSimple Visualization of Autoclave Airflow Using Wireless Cameras
  • Poursartip, Anoush
  • Fernlund, Göran
  • Slesinger, Nathan
1
Reference - Sintering With External PressureBookSintering With External Pressure
  • German, Randall M.
1
Reference - Suppliers for OvensWeb pageSuppliers for Ovens
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Suppliers for Presses, compression moldingWeb pageSuppliers for Presses, compression molding
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Technology review of thermal forming techniques for use in composite component manufactureJournalTechnology review of thermal forming techniques for use in composite component manufacture
  • Branson, David
  • Land, Patrick
  • Crossley, Richard
  • Ratchev, Svetan
1
Reference - Thermal Conductivities of Unidirectional MaterialsJournalThermal Conductivities of Unidirectional Materials
  • Springer, George S
  • Tsai, Stephen W
1
Reference - Thermal Modeling Validation Techniques for Thermoset Polymer Matrix CompositesThesisThermal Modeling Validation Techniques for Thermoset Polymer Matrix Composites
  • Slesinger, Nathan Avery
6
Reference - Thermtest Instruments: Materials Thermal Properties DatabaseWeb pageThermtest Instruments: Materials Thermal Properties Database
  • Thermtest Inc.
1
Reference - Thornel T650/35 product data sheetGenericThornel T650/35 product data sheet
  • Cytec Industries Inc.
1
Reference - Time-dependent behavior with gel formation or curingWeb pageTime-dependent behavior with gel formation or curing
  • Anton Paar
2
Reference - Tooling considerationsWeb pageTooling considerations
  • CompositesWorld
1
Reference - Understanding the Origins of Defects and Variability in Composites ManufactureConference proceedingsUnderstanding the Origins of Defects and Variability in Composites Manufacture
  • Potter, Kevin
1
Reference - Wind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditionsJournalWind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditions
  • Mullick, S. C.
  • Kumar, Suresh
2
Reference - Wind induced heat losses from outer cover of solar collectorsJournalWind induced heat losses from outer cover of solar collectors
  • Mullick, S. C.
  • Kumar, Subodh
  • Kandpal, T. C.
  • Sharma, V. B.
2
Reference - ‘But How Can We Make Something Useful Out of Black String?’ The Development of Carbon Fibre Composites Manufacturing (1965–2015)Book section‘But How Can We Make Something Useful Out of Black String?’ The Development of Carbon Fibre Composites Manufacturing (1965–2015)
  • Potter, Kevin
2
CKN KPC logo

Welcome

Welcome to the CKN Knowledge in Practice Centre (KPC). The KPC is a resource for learning and applying scientific knowledge to the practice of composites manufacturing. As you navigate around the KPC, refer back to the information on this right-hand pane as a resource for understanding the intricacies of composites processing and why the KPC is laid out in the way that it is. The following video explains the KPC approach:

Understanding Composites Processing

The Knowledge in Practice Centre (KPC) is centered around a structured method of thinking about composite material manufacturing. From the top down, the heirarchy consists of:

The way that the material, shape, tooling & consumables and equipment (abbreviated as MSTE) interact with each other during a process step is critical to the outcome of the manufacturing step, and ultimately critical to the quality of the finished part. The interactions between MSTE during a process step can be numerous and complex, but the Knowledge in Practice Centre aims to make you aware of these interactions, understand how one parameter affects another, and understand how to analyze the problem using a systems based approach. Using this approach, the factory can then be developed with a complete understanding and control of all interactions.

The relationship between material, shape, tooling & consumables and equipment during a process step


Interrelationship of Function, Shape, Material & Process

Design for manufacturing is critical to ensuring the producibility of a part. Trouble arises when it is considered too late or not at all in the design process. Conversely, process design (controlling the interactions between shape, material, tooling & consumables and equipment to achieve a desired outcome) must always consider the shape and material of the part. Ashby has developed and popularized the approach linking design (function) to the choice of material and shape, which influence the process selected and vice versa, as shown below:

The relationship between function, material, shape and process


Within the Knowledge in Practice Centre the same methodology is applied but the process is more fully defined by also explicitly calling out the equipment and tooling & consumables. Note that in common usage, a process which consists of many steps can be arbitrarily defined by just one step, e.g. "spray-up". Though convenient, this can be misleading.

The relationship between function, material, shape and process consisting of Equipment and Tooling and consumables


Workflows

The KPC's Practice and Case Study volumes consist of three types of workflows:

  • Development - Analyzing the interactions between MSTE in the process steps to make decisions on processing parameters and understanding how the process steps and factory cells fit within the factory.
  • Troubleshooting - Guiding you to possible causes of processing issues affecting either cost, rate or quality and directing you to the most appropriate development workflow to improve the process
  • Optimization - An expansion on the development workflows where a larger number of options are considered to achieve the best mixture of cost, rate & quality for your application.