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Reference - Frequency dependent heat capacity in the cure of epoxy resins

From CKN Knowledge in Practice Centre
Type Journal
Title Frequency dependent heat capacity in the cure of epoxy resins
Abstract Different temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) approaches were explored for studying the frequency dependence of the vitrification phenomenon during the cure of a thermosetting epoxy resin. All approaches show the expected decrease in vitrification time with increasing frequency. Light (heating) (temperature) modulated DSC (LMDSC), developed by Saruyama, offers the advantage that the frequency range for direct measurements is extended (from 0.01 to 1Hz). However, at frequencies above 0.1Hz, the results contain information about the changing thermal diffusivity (for samples above 100μm thick). A complex saw-tooth modulation method, developed by Wunderlich, allows multiple frequencies (over almost one decade) to be measured in a single experiment, thus eliminating effects of sample reproducibility. For studying the frequency dependence during (chemical) transformations, such as cure, the desired invariance of the sample during at least one modulation period and thermal diffusivity effects (even for films of only 100μm thick) limit a further extension of the frequency domain to lower and higher frequencies, respectively.
  • Van Assche, G
  • Van Mele, B
  • Saruyama, Y
Date 2001
Issue 1
Pages 125-130
Journal Thermochimica Acta
Volume 377
ISSN 0040-6031
Keywords Frequency, Temperature modulated differential scanning calori, Thermosetting polymer
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Welcome to the CKN Knowledge in Practice Centre (KPC). The KPC is a resource for learning and applying scientific knowledge to the practice of composites manufacturing. As you navigate around the KPC, refer back to the information on this right-hand pane as a resource for understanding the intricacies of composites processing and why the KPC is laid out in the way that it is. The following video explains the KPC approach:

Understanding Composites Processing

The Knowledge in Practice Centre (KPC) is centered around a structured method of thinking about composite material manufacturing. From the top down, the heirarchy consists of:

The way that the material, shape, tooling & consumables and equipment (abbreviated as MSTE) interact with each other during a process step is critical to the outcome of the manufacturing step, and ultimately critical to the quality of the finished part. The interactions between MSTE during a process step can be numerous and complex, but the Knowledge in Practice Centre aims to make you aware of these interactions, understand how one parameter affects another, and understand how to analyze the problem using a systems based approach. Using this approach, the factory can then be developed with a complete understanding and control of all interactions.

The relationship between material, shape, tooling & consumables and equipment during a process step

Interrelationship of Function, Shape, Material & Process

Design for manufacturing is critical to ensuring the producibility of a part. Trouble arises when it is considered too late or not at all in the design process. Conversely, process design (controlling the interactions between shape, material, tooling & consumables and equipment to achieve a desired outcome) must always consider the shape and material of the part. Ashby has developed and popularized the approach linking design (function) to the choice of material and shape, which influence the process selected and vice versa, as shown below:

The relationship between function, material, shape and process

Within the Knowledge in Practice Centre the same methodology is applied but the process is more fully defined by also explicitly calling out the equipment and tooling & consumables. Note that in common usage, a process which consists of many steps can be arbitrarily defined by just one step, e.g. "spray-up". Though convenient, this can be misleading.

The relationship between function, material, shape and process consisting of Equipment and Tooling and consumables


The KPC's Practice and Case Study volumes consist of three types of workflows:

  • Development - Analyzing the interactions between MSTE in the process steps to make decisions on processing parameters and understanding how the process steps and factory cells fit within the factory.
  • Troubleshooting - Guiding you to possible causes of processing issues affecting either cost, rate or quality and directing you to the most appropriate development workflow to improve the process
  • Optimization - An expansion on the development workflows where a larger number of options are considered to achieve the best mixture of cost, rate & quality for your application.